Before starting to ride or buying a new car, you should know about the most important part of your vehicle. Yeah, we are talking about brakes. Brake, an integral and one of the most important devices of a car is used to stop or slow down the car. It is a must for every vehicle for the sake of safety.
A typical brake; Image Source: Pride Auto Care
There are various sorts of brake that are commonly used in vehicles. Depending on the basis of division, brakes can be of following kinds.
On the basis of construction
here brakes are of two kinds- disk brake and drum brake. In case of a disk brake, a stationary housing known as caliper and iron disc is used which is bolted to the caliper. Caliper being connected to some stationery part of a vehicle casts in two parts. Each of the part consists of a piston.
A friction pad holding spring plates, retaining pins, etc. is attached in between each disc and piston. Arrangements are made for the entering and exit of fluid in the caliper. More passages are connected with one another to ensure bleeding. A rubber sealing ring is used in between the piston and the cylinder.
In case of drum brakes
A drum brake; Image Source: Napa know how blog
The axle hub has a drum attached with it. Whereas a backplate is mounted on the axle casing. Pressed steel sheet is used to make the backplate. Its function is to provide support to the anchor, expander and brake shoes. The shoe and drum are protected from dust and mud protected by it.
Drum brakes are often known as torque plate because the complete torque reaction caused by the shoe is absorbed by it. There are two brake shoes provided with friction lining on the backplate. Reactor spring, one or two in number, are used to separate brake shoe and drum when the brake is not applied. At one end, the brake shoes are anchored.
On the other end, some brake actuating mechanism is used to apply a force that results in forcing the revolving drum against brake shoe. As a result, a force of friction is generated between the shoe, drum and the brake applied. In order to compensate for the wear of friction lining in use, an adjustor is provided. Drum brakes are widely used in the making of cars and motorcycles.
On the basis of purpose
Brakes can be categorized into two kinds- primary and secondary brake. Primary brake, also known as service brake is used to stop or slow down the vehicle in a moving condition. It is considered as the main braking system and is located both in front and rear wheels of a vehicle.
Secondary brakes are commonly known as an emergency brake or parking brake. Vehicles are kept at the stationery position by using this brake. It is also known as hand brake as it is generally operated by using hands. Keeping the parked vehicle stationery is the main function of this kind of brake.
On the basis of actuation,
Five types of brakes are found. Mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, vacuum and air brakes. The brake in which brake force is applied mechanically in order to apply small force in braking is known as mechanical brakes. Vehicles such as bikes, scooters, etc. that require small braking force are provided with this kind of brake.
Magnetic effect of electricity is used to apply the braking force in electric brakes. the disk and the braking piston are connected to electricity. In order to apply a brake, the electricity is to be started. This will create a magnetic effect in between the disk and the brake pad. As a result, the brake is applied.
A disc brake; Image Source: Yourmechanic
The braking system in which the pressure of air is used to generate the braking force is called the air brake. Trucks, bus and other heavy loading vehicle use this sort of braking system.
Hydraulic oil is used to apply force in the hydraulic brakes. It is considered as one of the most reliable braking systems. Many term it as the most useful of all kind of brakes. Passenger cars mostly use this kind of brakes.
Hydraulic brakes; Image Source: Giant bicycles
Vacuum brake is considered as one of the most powerful braking systems. A vacuum is used by this kind of brakes to apply the force on brake pads. Heavy and big vehicles like train, heavy ship use this kind of brake. Therefore this was a simple introduction to the type of brakes you should know about.